Can I use a Sigma teleconverter on a Nikon lens?

I recommend against it. 

First and foremost, manufacturers design their converters in ways that ensure that the front teleconverter element doesn't hit the rear element of their own lenses. When you start switching between brands, you no longer have that assurance. But beyond that, for best results a converter's optical design should be matched against the lens' optical design. 

While Nikon and Sigma telephoto lens designs are similar, they're not the same. What I've found is that a Sigma converter works best on a Sigma lens and a Nikon converter on a Nikkor lens. The truly third party converters—e.g. the Kenko’s—are absolutely not optimized for any particular lens design. Sometimes they work fine on a lens, sometimes they produce considerably lower overall image quality than you can get by matching.  

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